Umuhango wicyayi cyabayapani: ifoto, izina, ibikoresho, umuziki

Umuhango wicyayi cyabayapani: ifoto, izina, ibikoresho, umuziki
Umuhango wicyayi cyabayapani: ifoto, izina, ibikoresho, umuziki
Anonim

Ibintu byose bisa nkibyingenzi mubuyapani, nubwo ibirori byicyayi byoroshye bifite amateka gakondo. Umuhango w'icyayi w'Abayapani washinze imizi mu binyejana byashize hagati y'abihayimana b'Ababuda babikwirakwiza mu gihugu cy'izuba riva. Ubu buhanzi ni ubuhe kandi ni ibihe biranga?

Umuhango w'icyayi

Urashobora kuvuga ko ubu aribwo buryo bwo gusangira icyayi. Yakozwe mu gihe cyo hagati, igihe icyayi cyagaragaraga ku butaka bwigihugu kandi Budisime itangira gukwirakwira. Imihango yicyayi yabayapani iracyahingwa nubu. Umugore wese wiyubaha wumuyapani cyangwa umuyapani yitabira amasomo yihariye yigisha ubu buhanzi. No mu Buyapani, inzu yiswe icyayi yarazigamwe, imaze ibinyejana byinshi kandi iragwa mu muryango.

umuyapani umuhango wicyayi umuziki

Mu ntangiriro byari uburyo bwihariye bwo gutekereza, ariko nyuma yigihe gito byahindutse ikintu cyumuco, gihuza cyane nabandi bantuumuco. Ifatwa ukurikije amategeko amwe: umutware wicyayi ahura nabashyitsi, hamwe bakareba ubwiza bwihishe mubintu bisanzwe, bakaganira kumutwe. Umuhango wicyayi cyabayapani ubwacyo ubera mucyumba kidasanzwe kandi ugereranya ibikorwa bikorwa muburyo runaka. Ariko ubanza, amateka make.

Amateka

Icyayi cyazanywe mu Buyapani kiva ku mugabane wa Afurika ahagana mu kinyejana cya 7-8. Bikekwa ko Ababuda bazanye, bafataga icyayi ikinyobwa kidasanzwe. Nta gutekereza na rimwe kwabayeho bitabaye ibyo, kandi byari ituro ryiza kuri Buda.

Igihe Budisime ya Zen yatangiraga gukwirakwira mu Buyapani, kandi abapadiri batangiye guhindura umuco cyane, no kunywa icyayi. Mu kinyejana cya XII, kunywa icyayi byatangiye gukoreshwa mu rukiko. Umubikira Eisai yashyikirije shogun ya Minamoto igitabo "Kissa Ezeki", aho handitswe uburyo bwo kubungabunga ubuzima hifashishijwe icyayi. Nyuma yikinyejana, kunywa icyayi byabaye rusange muri samurai.

Sisitemu yo gukwirakwiza imigenzo mubuyapani iroroshye cyane: umutegetsi akimara gufata ikintu, abayoboke be bazamukurikira.

Amarushanwa no kwiyuhagira

Nyuma yigihe runaka, imyitozo y "amarushanwa yicyayi" yinjiye mubidukikije. Izi zari amateraniro adasanzwe, abayitabiriye baryoheye ubwoko butandukanye bwicyayi kandi bagombaga kumenya ubwoko ninkomoko kuburyohe. Byihuse cyane, izina ryumuhango wicyayi cyabayapani nka "furo no cha" (風 呂 の 茶), bisobanura kunywa icyayi hamwe no kwiyuhagira, byaje kumyambarire.

Abitabiriye iki gikorwa basimburanayiyuhagira anywa icyayi. Abagabo n'abagore bombi bitabiriye ibirori by'icyayi, rimwe na rimwe umubare w'abitabira wari abantu ijana. Ibirori bya furo nta cha byarangiye kubera ibirori kumugaragaro. Muri ibyo birori, hitabiriwe cyane ku miti y’icyayi n '"imiterere itera."

izina ryicyayi cyabayapani

Abantu basanzwe batangiye gukoresha icyayi ikinyejana nigice nyuma yo kugaragara mugihugu. Ibintu byose byabaye byoroshye kuri bo kuruta kubanyacyubahiro. Abagize umuryango bose bateraniye hamwe banywa icyayi kandi bagirana ibiganiro byihuse.

Ubwanyuma, uko amarushanwa yicyayi akurikirana, ubwiza bwa furo nta cha, hamwe no kunywa icyayi cya filistine byabaye ibintu byingenzi bigize umuhango wicyayi cya kera.

Ikwirakwizwa

Uburyo bwumwimerere bwimihango yo kunywa icyayi cyimihango bwakozwe kandi butangizwa gukoreshwa na monah Dae. Abayobozi ba mbere b'imihango y'icyayi yize munsi ye. Nyuma yikinyejana, nko mu myaka ya 1394-1481, padiri Ikkyu Sojun yigishije Murata Juko umuhango wicyayi. Na we, yahinduye umuhango w'icyayi kandi yigisha icyerekezo gishya kuri Shogun Yoshimitsu, bityo aha imigenzo imbaraga zo kwiteza imbere.

. "(寂).

Jeo Takeno yagize uruhare mugutezimbere umuhango wicyayi. Niwe wambere watanze igitekerezo cyo gukoresha amazu yicyayi. Mu mafoto menshi yumuhango wicyayi cyabayapani, urashobora kubona uburyo abantuguteranira munzu yoroshye y'abahinzi ifite igisenge kibisi. Inyuma ya shitingi ifunguye inyuma yinyuma, ubusitani bwa tyaniva ninzira yamabuye ya roji.

ibisigo bivuga ibirori byicyayi cyabayapani

. Udushya twose twari tugamije gushiraho umwuka utuje, kuruhuka guhangayika no guharanira ubwiza.

Hamwe na shobuja ceramiste Tejiro, hashyizweho urwego rwa serivise kumihango yicyayi cyabayapani. Muri rusange gahunda yicyayi yari igamije kurema ubwiza bwihishe bubikwa mubintu byoroshye.

Ibyago bya Shebuja

.

Umuhango wicyayi washinze imizi mubuyapani, ariko uwabizanye muburyo bugezweho ntiyagize amahirwe. Amahame yuburanga ya Sen no Rikyu yaje kuvuguruzanya nuburyohe bwumutegetsi ukomeye wa feodal Toyotomi Hideyoshi, wahisemo kwakirwa neza nibikoresho byiza. Kubwibyo, mu 1591, abitegetswe na Toyotomi, umutware wicyayi yasabwaga kwiyahura. Ariko ibi ntibyabujije amahame ya Sen no Rikyu guhinduka mumashuri ayoboye ibirori byicyayi.

Mu ntangiriro z'ikinyejana cya 18, mu Buyapani gahunda yose y’icyayi. Ku mutwe wa buri wese muri bo yari umuyobozi mukuru wicyayi - iemoto. Icy'ingenziumurimo wari uwo gukomeza imigenzo yemewe yimihango yicyayi. Ibi ni ukuri uyu munsi.

Nigute wagira ibirori byicyayi?

Kuberako ibirori byicyayi byabayapani byitwa "cha no yu" (茶 の 湯), bisobanura "inzira yicyayi," abitabiriye icyayi bagomba kumenya neza inzira.

Mbere yo gutangira icyayi, abashyitsi bakira ibikombe bito by'amazi abira. Babyutsa gutegereza ibintu byiza kandi byiza. Nyuma yo kunyura mu busitani bwa tyaniva, hafi yinzira ya roji, berekeza munzu yicyayi ya chashitsu. Uru rugendo rusobanura ko umuntu asize impungenge zisi nibibazo bito, kandi gutekereza kumurima bifasha kweza ibitekerezo.

Hafi yinzu yicyayi, nyirayo ahura nabashyitsi. Nyuma yo gusuhuza umuhango, abashyitsi bajya ku iriba no kwiyuhagira.

gukaraba

. Nyuma yo koza indobo hanyuma ukayimurira mubindi. Uyu muhango usobanura ko umuntu yashizeho ubuziranenge bwumubiri nu mwuka. Nyuma yo kwiyuhagira, abashyitsi binjira munzu, bakuramo inkweto n'umuheto. Ikigaragara ni uko ubwinjiriro bwicyumba cyimihango ari buto cyane kandi buriwese agomba kunama kugirango yinjire, bivuze ko uburinganire bwabitabiriye mugihe cyimihango.

Ubuhanzi bw'icyayi

. Inkono y'amazi ishyirwa hejuru yacyo. Kuruhande rwa niche, ahari umuzingo ufite ijambo risabainsanganyamatsiko yimihango (tokonomu), hashyirwaho censer hamwe nindabyo zindabyo.

ifoto yicyayi cyabayapani

Nyiricyubahiro yinjiye nyuma yabashyitsi, yunamye, yicaye iruhande rwumuriro. Kuruhande rwayo hashyizweho ibirori byicyayi cyabayapani, bigizwe nigituza cyimbaho ​​hamwe nicyayi, igikombe hamwe na bamboo stirrer. Mugihe icyayi kirimo gutegurwa, abashyitsi barashobora kwishimira kaiseki, byoroshye, karori nkeya, nyamara ifunguro ryiza rizagabanya inzara. Mbere yo gutangira kunywa icyayi, ibiryo byicyayi biratangwa - omogashi.

. Mugihe abashyitsi bagenda, nyirubwite ashyira indabyo nziza nindabyo mumashami aho kuba umuzingo wimihango.

Igice kinini cyimihango gitangira iyo abashyitsi bagarutse bagenda. Nyirubwite ategura icyayi acecetse rwose, ibikorwa bye byose birasobanutse kandi birapimwa, umutware wicyayi agenda yinjyana numwuka we, kandi abashyitsi bareba iri sakramentu nibitekerezo. Ahari iyi niyo ntambwe yo gutekereza cyane kumihango yicyayi.

Kunywa icyayi

Icyayi cyabayapani cyicyayi gikoresha icyayi cyifu. Yasutswe mukibindi ceramique, yuzuyemo amazi abira, icyayi kivangwa na bombo yimigano kugeza itetse neza.

Icyayi kimaze gutegurwa, uwakiriye aha igikombe umushyitsi mukuru. Agomba gushyira igitambaro cya silike ku kiganza cye cy'ibumoso, agafata igikombe n'ukuboko kwe kw'iburyo, akagishyira ku kiganza cy'ibumoso agafata. Nyuma yibyo, impande zigikombe zahanaguwe nigitambaro, hanyuma kigahabwa umushyitsi ukurikira, nibindi.umurongo.

Kunywa icyayi mubiryo bimwe bisobanura ubumwe bwabitabiriye. Muri iki gikorwa, uwakiriye ashobora gucuranga umuziki wa kera mu birori byicyayi cyabayapani.

inzira igana inzu yicyayi

Igikorwa cya nyuma

Icyayi kirangiye, igikombe kizongera kunyuzwa muruziga kugirango buri wese mu bitabiriye amahugurwa yibuke imiterere yacyo. Nyuma yibyo, uwakiriye ategura icyayi cyoroheje kuri buri wese mu bahugurwa hanyuma igihe kirageze cyo kuganira. Insanganyamatsiko ye nijambo ryanditse kumuzingo wa tokonomu.

Ikiganiro nikimara kurangira, nyiricyubahiro asaba imbabazi, arunama asohoka munzu, bivuze ko umuhango urangiye. Abashyitsi bareba hafi yicyumba cya nyuma bagakurikira uwakiriye. Yahagaze iruhande rw'umuryango asezera kubitabiriye ibirori.

Intsinzi y'ibikorwa

Ibintu byinshi bigira uruhare mugutsinda kwicyayi. Umuziki, amasahani, imbere - ibi byose bigira ingaruka itaziguye kumiterere yicyayi cyimihango. Kubijyanye numuziki, injyana yibikoresho byo gutekereza mubisanzwe bikoreshwa, kurugero, ibihimbano bya Uttar Kuru cyangwa injyana yimigano.

Imbere yibyumba mumazu yicyayi byakozwe hakurikijwe ihame rya "wabi-sabi", bisobanura kamere nubworoherane. Hano nta kintu kigaragara kandi nkana, ndetse no mugihe cya Shogun Ashikaga, ibirori byicyayi byaberaga mubyumba bito kandi bifite ibikoresho byoroheje, iri hame ryarazigamwe uyumunsi, kuko umuhango wicyayi ugomba kuba kure yikigeragezo cyisi.

Umuhango wicyayi. Ibyombo n'ibikoresho

Serivise yo kunywa icyayi cyimihango igomba kubahiriza amategeko ya filozofiya, imigenzo nuburanga, kandi ikanahuza itsinda rimwe ryubuhanzi. Hano igitekerezo nyamukuru ni ibya kera, nkuko babivuga mu Buyapani: "Ibyokurya bigomba kugira kwibuka ibyahise." Mubyongeyeho, serivisi yimihango igomba gukurikiza amategeko shingiro:

  • Amafunguro ntagomba kuba umwe.
  • Ni ngombwa gukomeza ubumwe bwitsinda.
  • Ntugahagarike umutima cyangwa ngo ugire ibintu bigaragara mubitekerezo rusange.
  • Ibikoresho byo guteka bigomba kuba biciriritse, byoroshye kandi bya kera.
Serivise yicyayi cyabayapani

. Kugira ngo ukore ibirori byicyayi, ibintu bikurikira birakenewe:

  1. Chabaco - agasanduku k'icyayi k'ibiti.
  2. Chaki - icyayi cyangwa inkono y'umuringa.
  3. Igikombe cya Ceramic cyo gusangira icyayi.
  4. Ibikombe bito bya ceramic bitangwa kuri buri mushyitsi.
  5. Ikiyiko cy'imigano yo gusuka icyayi.
  6. Bamboo whisk.
  7. Hachi - igikombe cy'ibiryo.
  8. Kaishi - igitambaro cyo mu budodo.

Mubisanzwe ububumbyi bwa Raku bukoreshwa mumihango, ijyanye nuburyo gakondo bwabayapani.

Mu mirongo yerekeye umuhango wicyayi cyabayapani, urashobora kubona imvugo:

Umuhango wicyayi nubuhanga bwo kwerekana ubuntu bwubusa nibyiza byamahoro

Gusa hano urashobora kumva ukuriuburozi bwicyayi, nkaho wisanga mubyukuri bisa nkibibazo, ibitagenze neza kandi wifuza.

Ingingo ikunzwe