Yeruzalemu yi burasirazuba: amateka, ahantu

Yeruzalemu yi burasirazuba: amateka, ahantu
Yeruzalemu yi burasirazuba: amateka, ahantu
Anonim

Yeruzalemu y'Uburasirazuba ni umwe mu mijyi ya kera cyane ku isi, umujyi w'amadini atatu, inkomoko yayo igaruka ku gishushanyo cya Bibiliya cya Aburahamu. Mu binyejana byinshi, yarasenyutse arongera arubaka. Kugeza ubu, umujyi niwo mujyi w’amakimbirane hagati y’abahagarariye abakirisitu, abayahudi n’abayisilamu, bahujwe no kubaha no kubaha iki gihugu cyera.

Yeruzalemu

Amateka yo gushinga Yeruzalemu

Amateka yumujyi wa kera atangira ibinyejana 30 bishize, isoko yambere yizewe itwerekeza kubinyejana bya XVIII-XIX mbere ya Yesu. e., igihe byiswe Rusalimum. Muri kiriya gihe, Yerusalemu yarimbuwe inshuro 16 yongera kubakwa inshuro 17, kandi abategetsi hano basimbuwe inshuro zirenga 80, bava mu Bugereki bajya i Babiloni, kuva mu Baroma bajya mu Misiri, kuva mu barabu kugera kuri Crusaders, nibindi

Muri 1000 mbere ya Yesu. e. imbaraga zafashwe n'Umwami Dawidi, wazanye hano Isanduku y'Isezerano, ni ameza 10 y'amabuye afite Amategeko 10, afatwa nk'urusengero nyamukuru rw'Abayahudi. Muri icyo gihe, hafashwe umwanzuro wo gutangira kubaka YeruzalemuUrusengero. Ariko, yubatswe mumyaka 7 iyobowe numwami Salomo muri 960. BC e. yitabiriwe n'abakozi ibihumbi 150 n'abagenzuzi ibihumbi 4. Umwami amaze gupfa, leta yacitsemo ibice muri Isiraheli (igice cyo mu majyaruguru n'umurwa mukuru wa Yeruzalemu) na Yudaya (mu majyepfo).

. Muri 332 mbere ya Yesu. e. utwo turere twafashwe na Alegizandere Mukuru, kuva kuri 65 bagengwa n’Abaroma, maze Umwami Herode, uzwi ku izina rya Mukuru kubera amayeri n'ubugome, aba umutware wa Yudaya.

uburasirazuba bwa Yeruzalemu umurwa mukuru wa palestine

Umujyi Yesu Kristo yavukiyemo, yabagamo, apfa arazuka

. Niyi myaka niyo mpinduka Yesu Kristo yavukiyemo.

. ifoto ya jerusalem y'iburasirazuba

. Umujyi wahindutse amatongo. Gusa nyuma ya 135, igihe umwami Adrina abaye umutegetsi, arabikorakuvuka ubwa kabiri nkumudugudu wa gikirisitu, ariko mwizina rishya rya Elia Kapitolina, na Yudaya yakiriye izina rya Siriya-Palesitine. Kuva icyo gihe, abayahudi babujijwe kwinjira i Yerusalemu bababajwe no kwicwa.

.

. Ibinyejana byakurikiyeho XIII-XIV. yanyuze ku butegetsi bwa ba Mamluks n’idini ya kisilamu.

Kuva mu 1517 no muyindi myaka 400, Yeruzalemu iyobowe ningoma ya Ottoman, ku ngoma yumugi wari uzengurutswe nurukuta rufite amarembo 6.

Ingoma y'Abanyaturukiya yarangiye mu 1917, igihe ingabo z'Abongereza ziyobowe na Jenerali Allenby zinjiraga i Yeruzalemu. Igihe cya guverinoma y'Ubwongereza kiratangira, cyaje mu gihe cyacyo cyahawe inshingano z’Umuryango w’ibihugu. Kugerageza Abongereza "kwiyunga" abaturage b'Abarabu n'Abayahudi ntibyatsinzwe, kandi umuryango mpuzamahanga w’umuryango w’abibumbye watangiye gukemura iki kibazo.

Amateka yamakimbirane (1947-1949)

Leta yigenga ya Isiraheli yashinzwe hashize imyaka 60. Ibyo byabanjirijwe n’imirwano ikaze hagati y’ingabo z’abakoloni z’Abongereza, ishingwa ry’abaturage b’abarabu ndetse n’ibitero by’ibihugu by’abarabu biherereye mu baturanyi. Intambara yo muri Isiraheli yatangiye nyuma y’umuryango w’abibumbye yemeye mu 1947 icyemezo cyo kugabana agace ka Palesitine mu bihugu 2ku mpamvu z'idini: Abarabu n'Abayahudi. Igice cy'Abarabu cyanze kumvira iki cyemezo, maze intambara itangira kurwanya Abayahudi.

Intambara yamaze kuva mu Gushyingo 1947 kugeza muri Werurwe 1949, igabanyijemo ibice 2. Iya mbere, yabaye mu 1947-1948, Siriya na Iraki byaje gushyigikira abarabu. Iherezo ryiki gihe cyintambara ryaranzwe no gutangaza leta yigenga ya Isiraheli ku ya 15 Gicurasi 1948.

Icyakora, bukeye bwaho, icyiciro cya 2 cyatangiye, aho ingabo z’ibihugu 5 by’abarabu (Misiri, Iraki, Transjordan, Siriya na Libani) zamurwanyaga. Ingabo z’ingabo z’igihugu cya Isiraheli (IDF) zashinzwe mu mitwe y’imirwano y’Abayahudi zashoboye gutsinda neza ingabo z’Abarabu, maze ku ya 10 Werurwe 1949, ibendera rya Isiraheli ryazamurwa hejuru ya Eilat. Bimwe mubintu bya Palesitine byinjiye mubutaka bwa Isiraheli, Yeruzalemu yuburengerazuba yatangajwe ko ari umurwa mukuru.

amateka ya Yeruzalemu y'iburasirazuba

., mu kwigarurira Egiputa hari agace ka Gaza. Bashoboye kandi kurinda umusozi wa Scopus, aho kaminuza yigiheburayo n'ibitaro bya Hadassah biherereye. Aka gace imyaka 19 (kugeza 1967) karahagaritswe muri Isiraheli, itumanaho naryo ryabaye hifashishijwe imodoka ziyobowe na Loni.

Intambara hagati yabarabu nabayahudi (1956-2000s)

Mu myaka yakurikiyeho, Isiraheli yagombaga kurengera ubwigenge bwayo inshuro nyinshi mu ntambara za gisirikare n’abaturanyi bayo:

  • Intambara ya Sinayi (1956-57) yarangiye uburenganzira bwa Isiraheli bwo kugenda mu nyanja Itukura;
  • .
  • Intambara ya Yom Kippur (1973) yahagaritse ibitero bya Misiri na Siriya;
  • Intambara ya 1 yo muri Libani (1982-1985) yarangiye itsinzwe n'imitwe y'iterabwoba ya PLO yari i Libani ikarasa ibisasu kuri Galilaya;
  • Intambara ya 2 yo muri Libani (2006) yakorewe abarwanyi b'iterabwoba b'Abashiya Hezbollah.

Amateka ya Yeruzalemu yuburasirazuba afitanye isano rya bugufi n’ibibazo by’amakimbirane hagati ya Isiraheli n’ibihugu bituranye n’abarabu.

Yerusalemu numurwa mukuru wa Isiraheli

Dukurikije amategeko ya Isiraheli, umujyi wa Yeruzalemu niwo murwa mukuru wonyine wigihugu. Guhuza ibice by’iburasirazuba n’iburengerazuba byemewe ku ya 29 Kamena 1967, kandi kuva mu 1980 byigaruriwe na Isiraheli.

Umupaka uhuza Iburasirazuba na Yeruzalemu yuburengerazuba wasaga mbere na nyuma ya 1967 werekana ku ikarita hepfo. Nyuma y’ubwigenge muri leta ya Isiraheli, abayahudi benshi barimutse, baza gutura mubihugu byabarabu. Mu myaka itari mike, umubare wabatuye iki gihugu wikubye hafi kabiri, ibyo bikaba byaratumye hajyaho iterambere n’imiturire mu turere duhana imbibi. Uyu munsi, impande zose (usibye iburengerazuba) umujyi ukikijwe numubare munini wabatuye abayahudi. Noneho umupaka wiburasirazuba nuburengerazubaYeruzalemu irinzwe n'ingabo z'umuryango w'abibumbye.

Uburusiya bwamenye Yeruzalemu y'Uburasirazuba

Guhera mu 1967, abaturage bahawe amahirwe yo kubona ubwenegihugu bwa Isiraheli, mbere ntibakoreshwaga na bose. Ariko, uko imyaka yagiye ihita, kubona ko imbaraga za Yorodani zitazigera zigaruka, benshi babaye abenegihugu ba Isiraheli. Mu myaka 10 ishize, umujyi wagiye wubaka uturere dushya twabayahudi, inyubako zinganda n’ibikoresho bya gisirikare.

Ijambo "Yerusalemu yi burasirazuba" uyumunsi rifite ibisobanuro 2:

  • agace k'umujyi, kugeza 1967 kayobowe na Yorodani;
  • icya kane cyumujyi abaturage babarabu batuyemo.

Yeruzalemu yi burasirazuba ni umurwa mukuru wa Palesitine

.

Isiraheli na Yorodani).

Ku Bayahudi n'Abayisilamu, uyu mujyi ni ahantu hubahwa hubatswe insengero zose. Kubera iyo mpamvu, amakimbirane y’abarabu na Isiraheli amaze imyaka itari mike.

Nubwo Yeruzalemu yi burasirazuba, umurwa mukuru wa Palesitine, niwo mujyi munini ufite 350ibihumbi by'Abanyapalestine, ariko guverinoma ya Palesitine ifite icyicaro i Ramallah kandi ntishobora kugenzura neza kariya gace. Ntibyemewe no gutera inkunga ibirori ibyo ari byo byose (ndetse n'umuco) mu mbibi zayo, hasubijwe ko abaturage bamaze imyaka myinshi banga amatora y’amakomine ya Isiraheli.

. Ku rundi ruhande, abapolisi ba Isiraheli, ntibashaka kwivanga mu bibazo byaho kandi ntibitabira ibibazo by'abaturage.

Uburasirazuba bwa Yeruzalemu Ubuyobozi bwa Palesitine

Mu myaka 10 ishize, umujyi wagize impinduka zikomeye kumubiri no mubaturage hamwe no kubaka urukuta rwa beto runyura muri quartiers ya Palesitine. Imishinga y'amategeko yatowe kandi kugira ngo itore n'ubundi burenganzira ku Bayahudi 150.000 batuye ku nkombe y'Iburengerazuba ya Yeruzalemu. Muri icyo gihe, Abanyapalestine barenga 100.000 bazahabwa uburenganzira kandi bashyirwe mu nama yihariye.

Umujyi ushaje

Yeruzalemu y'Iburasirazuba ni umujyi w'amadini 3: Abakristu, Abayahudi n'Abisilamu. Ingoro nkuru ziherereye ku butaka bwazo mu Mujyi wa Kera, zikikijwe n'inkuta zubatswe mu kinyejana cya 16.

.
  • Christian, ikomoka mu kinyejana cya 4, ku butaka bwayo hari amatorero 40, kimwe na monasiteri n'amahoteri y'abagenzi. Hagati y'iki gihembwe ni Itorero rya Sepulcher, aho kubambwa, gushyingura no kuzuka kwa Yesu Kristo.
  • Abayisilamu - igice kinini kandi kinini cyane aho abarabu bimukiye mumidugudu yegeranye nyuma yo kugenda kwabayahudi nabakristu. Imisigiti yingenzi iherereye hano: Dome yurutare, Al-Aqsa, yubahwa kurwego rumwe na Maka. Abayisilamu bizera ko Muhammadi yaje avuye i Maka agasenga hamwe nubugingo bwabahanuzi. Hafi ya Dome ya Kibuye hari icyapa kibuye, aho, ukurikije imigani, Muhammad yazamutse mu ijuru. Nanone mu mihanda y'iki gihembwe unyura kuri Via Dolorosa, Umuhanda w'akababaro, aho Yesu Kristo yagendaga, yerekeza aho yiciwe - Golgotha.
  • Ikinyarumeniya - igihembwe gito, imbere muri Katedrali ya Mutagatifu Yakobo, wabaye nyamukuru kumuryango wa Arumeniya wa Leta ya Isiraheli.
  • Abayahudi - ni ahantu hera cyane, kubera ko Urukuta rwo Kuboroga runyura hano, hamwe n'ubucukuzi bw'umuhanda wa kera w’ubucuruzi w’Abaroma witwa Cardo, washyizweho n’umwami w'abami w'Abaroma Hadrian. Mu gice cyabayahudi, urashobora kandi kubona amasinagogi ya kera ya Hurva, Rambaba, Rabbi Yohannan Ben Zakaya.
umupaka uhuza iburasirazuba n'iburengerazuba

Urukuta rwo kuboroga

Iyo abantu baturutse impande zose z'isi babajije aho Yerusalemu y'Uburasirazuba iherereye, abahagarariye amadini y'Abayahudi bazi igisubizo cyiza kuri iki kibazo, kuko aha niho Urukuta rwo Kuboroga ruherereye,akaba ari urusengero nyamukuru rw'Abayahudi. Urukuta nigice gisigaye cyurukuta rwiburengerazuba rwumusozi wurusengero. Urusengero rwa Yeruzalemu ubwarwo rwashenywe n’Abaroma mu 70 nyuma ya Yesu ku ngoma y'Umwami w'abami.

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Uburebure bwayo ni 488 m, uburebure ni 15 m, ariko igice cyo hepfo cyibizwa mubutaka. Urukuta rwubakishijwe amabuye abajwe adakomeye, ibice byayo byose byari byegeranye kandi bishyizwemo cyane. Abagenzi ba kijyambere hamwe na ba mukerarugendo bashira inyandiko hamwe no gutakambira Imana mumabuye hagati yamabuye bagasenga. Buri kwezi, ubu butumwa bw'impapuro burakusanywa kandi bugashyingurwa kumusozi wa Elayono. Abagabo n'abagore begera urukuta baturutse mu byerekezo bitandukanye bakambara bakurikije amategeko: gupfuka imitwe n'ibitugu.

. n'urukuta ubwabwo.

Itorero rya Sepulcher Ntagatifu

. Yahindukiriye Ubukristo akuze kandi akora ingendo i Yeruzalemu. Itorero ryubatswe aho kuba urusengero rwa gipagani rwa Venusi, mu buroko bwarwo Elena yakoze ibisanga: ubuvumo bufite Sepulcher n'umusaraba,kuri Kristo yabambwe.

. umupaka uhuza iburasirazuba n'iburengerazuba

. Kuri buri dini, hari amasaha runaka yo gusenga. Nubwo umubano wose wemewe n’ubwumvikane, ariko, amakimbirane akunze kubaho hagati yabahagarariye ayo madini.

Hagati y'urusengero muri rotunda hari cuvuklia - ishapeli ya marble igabanijwemo ibice 2:

  • ishapeli ya Malayika, ifite idirishya ryo kohereza umuriro wera (umuhango uba buri mwaka mbere yuko umunsi mukuru wa Pasika utangira);
  • .

Urundi rusengero rwurusengero ni hejuru yumusozi, Golgotha, ku ntambwe. Uru rusengero rugabanyijemo ibice 2: aho umusaraba uherereye, ubu urangwamo uruziga rwa feza, hamwe n’ibimenyetso 2, aho bivugwa ko imisaraba y’abajura biciwe hamwe na Kristo yari iri.

Ibihe bya politiki byubu i Yerusalemu

6 Ukuboza 2017, Perezida wa Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika D. Trump yagize icyo atangaza muri politiki, yita Yeruzalemu umurwa mukuru wa Isiraheli, bituma ahitamo kwimurira ambasade ku butaka bwayo. Igisubizo cyatanzwe na Palesitine nicyo cyemezo cy’umutwe wa Hamas cyo kwigomeka kuri leta y’Abayahudi, imvururu zatangiye muri icyo gihugu, bituma abantu benshi bakomereka batewe n’abapolisi ba Isiraheli.

. 1991).

Umuryango w’ubufatanye bwa kisilamu (OIC) wakoze inama idasanzwe isubiza ibyavuzwe na perezida w’Amerika. Ku bwiganze bw'amajwi y'ibihugu bigize Umuryango wa OIC, Yeruzalemu y'Iburasirazuba yamenyekanye nk'umurwa mukuru wa Palesitine, kandi isaba umuryango w'isi yose gutera intambwe imwe. Perezida wa Turkiya, yavugiye muri iyo nama, yise Isiraheli igihugu cy’iterabwoba.

ois izi jerusalemu yuburasirazuba nkumurwa mukuru wa palestine

Uburusiya buvuga ko amagambo ya perezida w’Amerika ari akaga, kuko ashobora guteza ibibazo mu mibanire y’ibihugu byombi kandi bigatera ingaruka mbi. Ikibazo cyingenzi nukugera kubuntu butagatifu bwumujyi kubizera bose bavuga amadini atandukanye.

Uburusiya bwemeje ko Yeruzalemu y’iburasirazuba ari umurwa mukuru wa Palesitine na Yeruzalemu y’iburengerazuba nkumurwa mukuru wa Isiraheli kandi ishyigikiye ibiganiro by’amahoro hagati y’ibihugu byombi. Politiki y’igihugu cy’Uburusiya ni iyo gushyigikira imyanzuro yose y’umuryango w’abibumbye igamijegushiraho amahoro muri kariya gace.

Ingingo ikunzwe